Isomers-engineering chemistry question answers

What are geometrical isomers? Give examples.

Stereoisomers that differ in the arrangement of atoms across carbon-carbon double bond in open chain compound is known as geometrical isomers.

Show your familiarity with disastereomerism.

Optical isomers that are not mirror images of ne another are called disastereomers and such isomerism is called disastereoisomerism.

Differentiate between enantiomers and disastereomers.

The differences are-:

enantiomersdisastereomers
  1. Optical isomers which are the mirror images of one another.
  2. Enantiomers possess one or more asymmetric carbon.
  3. Enantiomers have same physical and chemical properties.
  4. Enantiomers pairs are always dextro and laevo.
  5. For e.g-:
  1. But disasteromers are optical isomers that are not the mirror images of one another.
  2. But disastereomers possess 2 or more asymmetric carbon.
  3. But disastereomers have different physical and chemical properties.
  4. But disastereomers pairs may be dextro & laevo and dextro & dextro.
  5. For e.g-:

What do you mean by racemic mixture? Explain the chemical resolution of racemic mixture.

Mixture of 2 equal parts of enantiomers is called racemic mixture.

It is optically inactive. This thing is found in lactic acid.

Its examples is given below.

Explain the condition required for geometrical isomerism.

  1. C=C bond in open chain comp’d is required.
  2. Each double bonded carbon must be bonded with different atoms/groups.
  3. If same atoms or same groups or same side of carbon-carbon double bond is cis-isomers.
  4. If same atom or same groups are on opposite=Trans isomers.

Differentiate between racemic mixture and mesocompound.

The differences between racemic mixture and mesocompound are as follows-:

racemic mixturemesocompound
  1. Racemic mixture are the optical isomers when mixed in equal molar concentration forming equal volume optically inactive mixture.
  1. Mesocompound are the organic compound that possess 2 or more asymmetric carbon but will be optically inactive due to the presence of symmetry.

Why is cis-isomers less stable than trans-isomers?

Cis-isomers are less stable than trans-isomers because du tot the similar atoms/groups on the same side of C=C bond as this creates a double bond steric hindrance and hence repulsion takes place which ultimately enhances the unstablility.

 

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